MATERIAL: Hand-Written/Painted
TYPE: Documents (Loose)
COMPONENTS: 21 sheets. Manuscript writing in black ink. Second page in sealed paper.
CONDITION: Very good condition.
NOTES: Hacienda  Gavia. One of the most rich ranches of the central area of colonial Mexico.  


ITEM ID: 3214

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Cases of Attacks by Natives on Hacienda de Gavia

Year: 1789 
Decade: 1780s
Century: 18th (1701-1800)

A case of Indian attacks and abuses:“Sobre los excesos cometidos por los Indios de San Miguel y otros pueblos en el monte de la Hacienda de la Gavia”(About  the excesses committed by the Indians of San Miguel and other villages in the mountain of the Hacienda de la Gavia)  A case of Indians abuses and attacks to the Hacienda de Gavia in the vallery of Toluca, composed by various testimonies: The document starts with an account from the jurisdiction of Temascaltepec in 1785, where the administrator of the Hacienda de la Gavia declares that the Indians from San Miguel, San Francisco and other towns, only had permission to cut some wood from the property to build their huts and for their needs. However, he declares that they started to exploit carelessly the resources of the mountain to sell it in Toluca.  The administrator asks for aid to capture the Indians and seize their burden animals. The document states that a Mayor Deputy Sheriff from the local court was sent to aid the Hacienda, with instructions to present the Indians, wood and animals to the court.  The Sheriff captured and put in jail 19 responsible Indians.  Followed by a detailed list of all the seized objects.  Later, some of the Indians where liberated, but some of the wood was confiscated. A note from the trial states that a translator was needed because the Indians didn´t speak Spanish. An account from a guardian of the Hacienda is included; he mentions some abuses, where the Indians introduced their cattle to feed from the grasslands.  He noticed that they were cutting wood without permission. When he went to charge them the cost of the wood the Indians attacked him with stones and sticks. Other attacks are mentioned to occur in multiple occasions, even breaking the fence of the Hacienda. Multiple damages made by the Indians are mentioned.  The Count of Regla, tutor of the Marques of San Cristobal- owner of the Hacienda, also provides an account, where he mentioned the abuses and insults made by the Indians. At the end is included the sentence of the Viceroy of Mexico, Bernardo de Galvez. He declares that the Indians are obliged to restitute all that they have stolen from the Hacienda.