Chinese Famille Rose Porcelain Jar
A Chinese famille rose porcelain jar made during mid-late 19th Century, likely Tongzhi Period (1861-1875).
According to scholar Jonathan Clements, “So, to summarize the fragments pieced together in individual pictures by Jeffrey Kinkley and myself, this appears to be a vase depicting three famous Chinese generals: Dongfang Shuo, Guo Ziyi and Sun Lang. Guo Ziyi dates from the Tang dynasty, the other two are late Han.
-Dongfang Shuo (Chinese: 東方朔, c. 160 BCE – c. 93 BCE) was a Han Dynasty scholar-official, fangshi (“master of esoterica”), author, and court jester to Emperor Wu (r. 141 – 87 BCE). In Chinese mythology, Dongfang is considered a Daoist xian (“transcendent; immortal”) and the spirit of Venus who incarnated as a series of ancient ministers including Laozi.
-Sun Lang, courtesy name Zao’an, was a son of the Chinese warlord Sun Jian, who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty. He was a half-brother of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of the state of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period.
Sun Lang’s misfortune occurred in 222, shortly after Sun Quan’s triumph over Liu Bei at the Battle of Xiaoting. The emperor of Cao Wei, Cao Pi, launched a multi-pronged invasion against Eastern Wu. One prong was led by Cao Xiu, who led his army to Dongkou, which was defended by Lü Fan. Sun Lang was acting in capacity as a guardsman of the palace at the time and thus was under Lü Fan’s authority. However, early in the battle, he accidentally set fire to his own camp, destroying a large quantity of supplies in the process. To compound the Wu forces’ difficulty, a freak storm struck at Lü Fan’s fleet, sending it crashing along the northern shore. Those troops in Lü Fan’s fleet who did not drown were then in danger of either being attacked by Cao Xiu’s troops or dying of starvation. Luckily for the Wu forces, the general Xu Sheng arrived, driving back Cao Xiu’s forces long enough for Lü Fan to regroup, and in the end, Cao Xiu’s fleet was driven back. Despite the victory, Sun Quan was furious that his half-brother had nearly brought destruction upon the state and he punished Sun Lang heavily. Sun Lang had all his military ranks and appointments stripped off, was disowned from the Sun family and forced to change his name to Ding Lang (丁朗). He spent the rest of his life under house arrest.江东 Jiangdong is a place, site of a military campaign in the 190s AD (so, late Han dynasty) in which the 孙 Sun family were instrumental. I would say this is supposed to mean “Sun Lang of Jiangdong.
-Guo Ziyi (Kuo Tzu-i; Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪, Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo1 Tzu3-i2) (697 – July 9, 781), posthumously Prince Zhōngwǔ of Fényáng (汾陽忠武王), was the Tang dynasty general who ended the An Lushan Rebellion and participated in expeditions against the Uyghur Khaganate and Tibetan Empire. He was regarded as one of the most powerful Tang generals before and after the Anshi Rebellion. After his death he was deified in Chinese folk religion as the God of Wealth and Happiness (Lu Star of Fu Lu Shou).”