Muster Roll of Battalion “Mixto de Queretaro”
A detailed muster roll of the Battalion “Mixto de Queretaro” that took part in the defense of Puebla de Zaragoza during the French invasions of 1862-1863. The document is made after the first encounter (the famous battle of 5 de Mayo of 1862), but before the second round of attacks from 1863 – where this battalion was virtually annihilated.Contains the specifics of the various companies that formed the Mixed Battalion of Queretaro, who took part in the emblematic battle and siege of Puebla during the second French intervention: Company of Zapadores, 1st company , 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, cazadores and the “Plana Mayor” (Officers Staff). The current force, the discharges, the new registers. The motives of discharge are noted, some soldiers are declared as having deserted to the French army.At command of the Batallion, is note on the Officers Staff is Colonel Anacleto Herrera y Cairo; who would later be appointed governor and military commander of Jalisco in 1864. Certainly one of the most patriotic Mexican commanders and fervent opposers during the French invasion: he swore war to the death against the invaders and all those who collaborated with them. He continued the fight, despite the scarcity of resources, well into 1865.The Batallón Mixto de Querétaro formed part of the “Ejército de Oriente”, military unit created by Benito Juarez in 1862 for the defense of Puebla. The first general, Ignacio Zaragoza, died on September 8 of 1862 and command passed to Jesus Gonzalez Ortega.After a successful defense on May of 1862, the Ejercito de Oriente has once again the responsibility to defend the city of Puebla, called by decree of Juarez “Puebla de Zaragoza” in honor of Ignacio Zaragoza (and thus named in the current document) . The 62 days siege by Marshal Frederic Forey virtually exterminated the Ejército de Oriente and with it th Batallón Mixto de Queretaro. The participation of the Batallon Mixto de Queretaro:During the siege of Puebla, the Battalion occupied a key position in its defense: the Guadalupe Fort. The forts of Loreto and Guadalupe, due to their strategic locations were heavily fortified, their importance was such that they were considered the “Gate to Mexico City”; their downfall meant the whole capitulation of Mexico.According to the official publication, when the French army besieged and attacked the city of Puebla for the first time in May of 1862, the Queretaro mixed battalion was the major force of defense by command of General Herrera y Cairo. In an official communication from the battle of May 5th of 1863 is said about the battalion: “el batallón mixto de Querétaro desplegó valor y actos de heroísmo. Los artilleros ante la carencia de pólvora para disparar las piezas, arrojaron las granadas de cañón sobre los atacantes que ya escalaban los muros del fuerte de Guadalupe. Este combate fue por demás sangriento y difícil” (The battalion displayed their acts of valor and heroism. The artilleryman, due to the lack of gunpowder to fire the canons, had to throw the canon grenades over the enemies that were climbing the walls of the Fort of Guadalupe. This combat was very difficult and bloody). In the Plana Mayor (Officers Staff) list figures a national hero: Romulo Batista. It is said that the commander Batista held custody of the national flag during the French attacks of 1863, again in the city of Puebla. In the last efforts of the Mexican army, Batista charged against the French forces in front of his battalion, dying while still holding the flag. This flag is still preserved, pierced by bullets, in the Hall of Sessions of the Congress of the State of Queretaro.During the defense of 1863, again in Puebla, the battalion was stationed in the fort of Carmen. In May 13 of 1863, a few day before the city fell, General Forey fired all his canons against the Fort of Carmen causing grave casualties. The remaining soldiers of the battalion perished in a “glorious” and frontal charge.
Colonialism / Diaspora
This collection features objects related to human colonization and displacement.