TYPE: Broadside
DIMENSIONS: 16 3/4 x 12 1/4 inches
COMPONENTS: Printed on sealed paper
CONDITION: Signed in type by Venégas as Viceroy of New Spain and in manuscript by José Ignacio Negreros y Soria; folds, moderate worming affecting 4 letters, marginal edge wear, docketed to San Miguel del Milagro on verso; uncut.
NOTES: See León-Portilla, "Tepuztlahcuilolli, impresos en náhuatl," page 98; and Mark Morris, "Language in Service of the State: The Nahuatl Conterinsurgency Broadsides of 1810," in Hispanic American Historical Review 87:3 (2007), pages 433-470. 4 copies in OCLC, and none known at auction since 1982.
ITEM ID: 4795

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Rare Mexican Broadside

Year: 1810
Decade: 1810s
Century: 19th (1801-1900)
Notes: October 5, 1810

Over the centuries of their rule, the Viceroys of New Spain issued only 5 broadside decrees in Nahuatl, the most widely spoken indigenous language of their dominion.
Two of them were issued by the newly arrived Viceroy Venégas in 1810, in an effort to quell the recently declared Hidalgo “Grito de Delores” rebellion. The present broadside announces an end to the payment of tribute taxes by Mexico’s Indians, a decree which had already been issued in Spanish that May. By its very existence, the broadside also ended the colony’s 40-year ban on the use of Nahuatl in official publications. It also went even further, reading (in translation): “And so every one may know the king’s desires, and so they may be realized, may this decree be written everywhere in the Mexican language, the Otomí language, and every other Indian language.” It drew on the work of Rafael Sandoval (likely the translator), whose recent Arte de Lengua Mexicana was the first new book in Nahuatl to be published since 1770.