Zionist Youth Movement Document
Hashomer Hatzair (Hebrew: הַשׁוֹמֵר הַצָעִיר, also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, meaning The Young Guard) is a Socialist-Zionist, secular Jewish youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary, and it was also the name of the group’s political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British Mandate of Palestine (see Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine).
Hashomer Hatzair, along with HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed of Israel, is a member of the International Falcon Movement – Socialist Education International.
Jewish Cubans, Cuban Jews, or Cubans of Jewish heritage, have lived in the nation of Cuba for centuries. Some Cubans trace Jewish ancestry to Marranos (converts to Christianity) who came as colonists, though few of these practice Judaism today. More than 24,000 Jewish persons lived in Cuba in 1924, and more immigrated to the country in the 1930s. But during and after the 1959 communist revolution, 94% of the Jewish left for the United States and other countries. In 2007 an estimated 1,500 known Jewish Cubans remained in the country, overwhelmingly located in Havana. Several hundred have since emigrated to Israel.